Towards a Gender Analysis Framework
for the adoption and use of
Environmentally Sound Technologies

Hari Srinivas
Management Tools Series E-058.


In the dynamic landscape of sustainable development, the critical interplay between gender considerations and the application of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) has emerged as a paramount concern. As societies navigate complex environmental challenges and strive for inclusive progress, a deeper understanding of how gender dynamics intersect with technological advancements becomes imperative.

SDG 17/Target 17.7 calls for action to " promote development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries".
This paper explores the formulation of a Gender Analysis Framework tailored to facilitate the integration, adoption, and use of ESTs.

In an era characterized by both remarkable scientific innovation and persisting gender disparities, the intersection between technology and gender equity unveils a nexus that needs better understanding. The inherent relationship between gender roles, access to resources, and the adoption of technologies has a significant impact on the efficacy and sustainability of developmental action.

The synthesis of gender analysis methodologies and the context of environmentally sound technologies highlights a policy pathway for aligning sustainable development with gender equity objectives. By developing a custom Gender Analysis Framework, this paper attempts to to shed light on the potential of harmonizing gender-sensitive perspectives with that of ESTs.

But why ESTs? Why should technologies be environmentally sound?

ESTs are capable of reducing environmental damage through processes and materials that generate fewer emissions, recover production wastes. Adopting ESTs is a policy goal that is driven by the need to reconcile development with ecological balance. ESTs offer a pathway toward sustainable development by mitigating impacts of resource depletion, pollution, and habitat degradation.

By adhering to principles of ecological integrity and resource efficiency, ESTs minimize harm to delicate ecosystems, safeguard biodiversity, and reduce carbon footprints of human activities. ESTs also foster resilience in the face of climate change, ensuring that societies can adapt to such changes.

The significance of adopting ESTs extends beyond ecological considerations, and includes social equity and overall well-being. By addressing the environmental impacts of technologies, ESTs contribute to improved public health, particularly for marginalized communities and groups disproportionately affected by pollution and environmental degradation.

ESTs also enable societies to transition toward circular economies, minimizing waste, conserving resources, and disrupting the linear patterns of consumption and disposal. Ultimately, the pursuit of ESTs reflects a commitment to a holistic and inclusive development process one that integrates ecological integrity and societal welfare.

Importance of ESTs from a Gender Perspective

ESTs have the potential for significantly improved environmental performance relative to other technologies, by satisfying five key issues:

  1. protecting the environment,
  2. being less polluting,
  3. using resources in a sustainable manner,
  4. recycling more of their wastes and products
  5. handling all residual wastes in a more environmentally acceptable manner

ESTs gains importance from a gender perspective, as they intersect with fundamental dimensions of equity, empowerment, and sustainable development. In many societies, gender disparities are intricately linked to access to resources, economic opportunities, and decision-making power. ESTs have the potential to alleviate these disparities by offering options for women's active participation and leadership in areas traditionally dominated by men. By incorporating gender-sensitive design, training, and implementation, ESTs can empower women to contribute meaningfully to environmental conservation and resource management.

ESTs offer a transformative avenue to challenge and reshape prevailing gender norms and roles. When strategically applied, ESTs criteria can alleviate women's time and labor constraints, freeing them to engage in income-generating activities, education, and community leadership. Such empowerment not only enhances women's economic participation, but also catalyzes shifts in social perceptions.

Moreover, ESTs hold the potential of reducing women's vulnerability to environmental challenges. In contexts where women are primary caretakers of natural resources and household well-being, access to technologies that focus on, for example, cleaner energy sources, efficient cooking technologies, and sustainable water management can alleviate health risks and increase productivity. By minimizing exposure to harmful pollutants and resource-intensive practices, ESTs enhance women's health, safety, and overall quality of life.

From an intergenerational perspective, ESTs have the capacity to promote gender-equitable education and training in technological fields, challenging traditional gender divisions in the workforce. Consequently, the integration of gender-responsive ESTs can foster improved resource management, economic prospects, and social cohesion.

Gender-inclusive Criteria

The adoption and use of ESTs within a gender-inclusive framework require careful consideration of various gender criteria. These criteria are essential to ensure that ESTs are effectively integrated into communities while addressing gender disparities and promoting equitable benefits. Such criteria can include:

  • Accessibility and Affordability
    ESTs need to be accessible and affordable to both women and men, considering potential economic constraints. Gender-sensitive pricing and financing mechanisms can help ensure that women, who often have limited financial resources and control, can equally access and benefit from ESTs.

  • Training and Capacity Building
    Providing gender-responsive training and capacity-building programs ensures that both women and men have the knowledge and skills to effectively use and maintain ESTs. Tailored training need to consider different learning needs and schedules of women and men.

  • User-Friendly Design
    ESTs need to be designed with user-friendliness in mind, accommodating varying levels of technological familiarity and literacy. Clear instructions and intuitive interfaces can make ESTs more accessible to women, especially those with limited technological exposure.

  • Safety and Health Considerations
    Gender analysis needs to assess the potential impact of ESTs on the health and safety of women and men users. This involves understanding the physical and ergonomic aspects of technology use, particularly in cases where women may be more vulnerable to specific health risks.

  • Time and Labor Savings
    ESTs need to aim to reduce the time and labor burden on women, who often bear a disproportionate share of household and productive work. Technologies that minimize menial labor and free up time for women, can contribute to gender equality.

  • Resource Management
    ESTs that optimize resource use, such as energy-efficient appliances or water-saving technologies, can have positive gender implications. Women are often responsible for resource management in households and communities, making their involvement crucial for successful technology adoption.

  • Decision-Making and Ownership
    Ensuring women's participation in decision-making processes related to EST adoption and ownership rights can empower them economically and socially. Women's involvement can lead to technology choices that better align with their needs and priorities.

  • Cultural and Social Acceptance
    Gender analyses need to consider the cultural and social context of technology adoption. Technologies that align with local gender norms and values are more likely to be embraced by communities, leading to sustainable adoption and use.

  • Benefits Distribution
    Gender criteria should assess how benefits from ESTs are distributed between women and men. Ensuring that women have equal access to the economic, environmental, and social benefits of technology can contribute to gender equity.

  • Monitoring and Evaluation
    Incorporating gender-sensitive indicators into monitoring and evaluation mechanisms helps track the differential impacts of ESTs on women and men. This enables adjustments and refinements to technology implementation strategies over time.

By incorporating these gender criteria into the adoption and use of ESTs, policymakers, practitioners, and stakeholders can create a more inclusive and equitable environment where technology becomes a driver of sustainable development and gender empowerment.

Formulating a Gender Analysis Framework for using ESTs

Integrating the above gender criteria into a comprehensive Gender Analysis Framework for the adoption and use of ESTs requires a structured approach that ensures consideration of gender dynamics throughout the technology lifecycleTechnology lifecycle refers to stages, from conceptualization and development to adoption, maturity, and eventual decline, that a technology undergoes throughout its existence in the market and society. . Some of the criteria that can be included within the framework are:

1. Contextual Analysis:

  • Understanding the socio-cultural context, gender roles, and norms within the target community.
  • Identifing the specific ESTs under consideration and their potential applications.
  • Analyzing the existing gender disparities in access, control, and benefits related to technology use.

2. Stakeholder Mapping:

  • Identifying key stakeholders, including women and men from different age groups, socioeconomic backgrounds, and roles.
  • Ensuring representation from local institutions, community leaders, and relevant authorities.

3. Gender Criteria Assessment:

  • Evaluating each gender criterion in the context of the chosen ESTs, including how the technology may impact women's and men's lives differently.
  • Using participatory methods, focus group discussions, and surveys to gather insights on the specific needs, preferences, and challenges of women and men regarding EST adoption.

4. User Needs and Preferences:

  • Engaging with users to understand their technological literacy, preferences, and potential barriers to adoption.
  • Assessing how the ESTs align with daily tasks, workloads, and responsibilities of women and men.

5. Technology Design and Development:

  • Collaborating with designers and engineers to ensure that ESTs are user-friendly, ergonomically designed, and culturally sensitive.
  • Incorporating feedback from women and men users during the design process to address potential gender-specific challenges.

6. Training and Capacity Building:

  • Developing gender-responsive training programs that cater to the diverse learning styles and schedules of women and men.
  • Includong practical demonstrations, hands-on sessions, and peer-to-peer learning opportunities.

7. Resource Management and Benefits Distribution:

  • Evaluating how the ESTs contribute to resource optimization and benefits distribution.
  • Considering whether the technology reduces women's workload, enhances their income-generation opportunities, and empowers them economically.

8. Ownership and Decision-Making:

  • Ensuring that women are actively involved in decisions related to EST adoption, ownership, and management.
  • Promoting gender-balanced participation in technology-related committees or groups.

9. Safety and Health Considerations:

  • Assessing potential health and safety implications of the ESTs, particularly in relation to women's and men's physical well-being.
  • Implementing design features that minimize health risks and promote user safety.

10. Cultural and Social Acceptance:

  • Analyzing how ESTs align with local cultural norms and values.
  • Engaging in community dialogues and consultations to address any concerns or misconceptions.

11. Monitoring and Evaluation:

  • Developing gender-sensitive indicators to monitor the impacts of EST adoption on women and men.
  • Regularly collecting data to assess changes in access, benefits, and gender dynamics over time.

12. Adaptation and Continuous Improvement:

  • Regularly reviewing and refine the Gender Analysis Framework based on feedback, lessons learned, and emerging gender considerations.
  • Encouraging adaptive management approaches to ensure that the framework remains responsive to evolving gender dynamics and technological advancements.

Integrating these steps and considerations into a Gender Analysis Framework, can facilitate a systematic and gender-inclusive approach to the adoption and utilization of ESTs. This framework will enable more effective, equitable, and sustainable technolgies.

Decision Criteria for the adoption and Use of ESTs

There are five decision criteria sets related to idetifying and using ESTs - these criteria list out the technology aspects that need to be evaluated to ensure that the technology is 'fit' to be environmentally sound.

Incorporating and making these aspects gender-specific will ensure that the decision sets also take into account the differential impacts of the technologies on women and men, as well as the potential for enhanced gender equality and empowerment.

The five decision criteria sets are: environmental protection, pollution reduction, sustainable resource use, recycling and reuse, and residual waste management.

Decision Criteria Set #1: Environmental Protection

  • Assessing the technology's impact on local communities, particularly its effects on women's health and livelihoods.
  • Evaluating whether the technology promotes women's participation in decision-making processes regarding environmental standards and management.
  • Analyzing the technology's potential to reduce gender-specific vulnerabilities to environmental risks, such as water scarcity or air pollution.

Decision Criteria Set #2: Pollution Reduction

  • Considering the technology's potential to mitigate gender-differentiated health risks associated with pollution, especially for women who may have greater exposure due to specific roles and activities.
  • Evaluating whether the technology's noise reduction measures improve the quality of life for women and address potential impacts on caregiving responsibilities.
  • Examining the technology's impact on indoor air quality, particularly in contexts where women spend more time indoors.

Decision Criteria Set #3: Sustainable Resource Use

  • Assessing whether the technology enhances women's access to and control over resources such as energy, water, and materials, thereby supporting their economic empowerment.
  • Analyzing the technology's potential to address gender gaps in resource availability, such as ensuring equitable access to renewable energy sources.
  • Evaluating the technology's contribution to reducing women's time and labor burdens, especially in contexts where women are primarily responsible for resource management.

Decision Criteria Set #4: Recycling and Reuse

  • Assessing the technology's potential to create income-generating opportunities for women through involvement in recycling and reuse activities.
  • Analyzing whether the technology promotes gender-equitable participation in waste management and recycling value chains.
  • Evaluating the technology's impact on reducing gender disparities in access to recycled and reused materials.

Decision Criteria Set #5: Residual Waste Management

  • Assessing whether the technology's waste reduction measures positively impact marginalized communities, including women who may be disproportionately affected by inadequate waste management.
  • Evaluating the technology's potential to create green jobs and economic opportunities for women in waste management and pollution abatement.
  • Analyzing the technology's contribution to reducing gender disparities in waste-related health risks and associated costs.

Integrating gender-specific considerations into these decision criteria sets, ensures that the evaluation and selection of ESTs can be more comprehensive and equitable, and technological solutions not only advance environmental sustainability but also promote gender equality, social inclusion, and women's empowerment.

Policy Considerations for ESTs

In shaping policies to harness the potential of ESTs through a gender lens, a multifaceted approach is essential. First and foremost, policymakers need to prioritize integrating gender perspectives across all stages of EST development, deployment, and evaluation. This would entail fostering partnerships between governmental bodies, research institutions, and civil society organizations to ensure that gender considerations are intrinsic to technological innovation.

Secondly, policy frameworks need to promote capacity-building initiatives that empower women and men alike to actively engage with ESTs. Educational programs, vocational training, and mentorship opportunities can cultivate a diverse workforce adept at harnessing and contributing to sustainable technologies. By dismantling traditional gender barriers in technical fields, such initiatives can accelerate the adoption of ESTs and amplify their positive impact on environmental conservation and resource management.

Lastly, policies need to emphasize participatory decision-making and the amplification of women's voices in shaping environmental policies and projects, and the technologies need for those initiatives. Incorporating women's perspectives at all levels of planning, implementation, and monitoring can lead to more effective and inclusive solutions. Enabling women's representation in decision-making bodies and ensuring their access to resources and information are integral steps toward equitable and sustainable technological transitions.

Weaving gender considerations into EST policies is not only a matter of equity but a strategic imperative for achieving sustainable development. By embracing a gender-responsive approach, policymakers can unlock the untapped potential of women, foster innovation, resilience, and social cohesion in for a more environmentally balanced future.


This document is based on the work carried out by the author as Co-Chair of the Gender Task Force of the International Environmental Technology Center.

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