Transboundary environmental problems (i.e. environmental problems that affect more than one country across their borders) need negotiated discussions in oirder to arrive at consensus solutions that will then be implemented by all concenting or signatory countries. This is especially true for problems than are global or affect a large number of countries.
Such negotiated solutions - called "Multilateral Environmental Agreements" - are usually formulated under the aegis of the United Nations and include scientific data gathering, negotiations, discussions, global conferences, and an Agreement document that is signed by concenting countries.
The best known of MEAs, is of course the Paris Agreement on Climate Change promulgated in December 2015, which along with the MEAs on biological diversity and dersertification, form the "Big Three" MEAs.
The MEAs on climate change (UNFCCC
), Biodiversity (UNCBD
) and desertification (UNCCD
) are collectively called the "Big Three"
agreements or the "Rio Conventions"