Policy Options: Message in a bottle
Notes on Integrated Coastal Management (ICM)


    The Main premises of ICM

  • Natural resources are finite and their use must be allocated prudently.
  • Functional integrity of the resource systems must be protected.
  • Resource management involves change of human perceptions and behaviour.
  • Resolution of multiple-use conflicts needs a holistic approach through policy, management, and technical innovations.
  • Planning and management processes are dynamic and should respond to ecological and socio-economic conditions and evolve with time.
  • Management is most effective at the local level.

    Principles Emanating from International Agreements

  • the principle of integration,
  • the principle of the right to develop,
  • the precautionary principle,
  • the polluter pays principle,
  • the overarching goal of sustainable development, and
  • the principle of inter- and intragenerational equity.

    Principles Related to the Physical Nature of Coastal Areas

  • Coastal areas are distinctive resource systems that require special management and planning approaches.
  • Water is the major integrative force in coastal resource systems.
  • Management must be integrated across the land - water boundary, due to the interactions that take place across the land - water interface.
  • Conservation of land forms fronting on the water's edge is important for sustainability.

    Operational Principles for Implementing ICM

  • Adopt a systematic, incremental approach in developing and implementing ICM projects and programs.
  • Involve the public in the ICM process.
  • Integrate environmental, economic, and social information from the very beginning of the ICM process.
  • Establish mechanisms for integration and cooperation.
  • Establish sustainable financing mechanisms.
  • Develop ICM capacity at all levels.
  • Monitor the effectiveness of ICM projects and programs.



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