his statement was drafted and finalized at a conference at the Wingspread
Conference Center, Racine, Wisconsin, which took place 23-25 January 1998.
The 32 authors of the statement are listed beneath the statement.
The release and use of toxic substances, resource exploitation, and
physical alterations of the environment have had substantial unintended
consequences on human health and the environment. Some of these
concerns are high rates of learning deficiencies, asthma, cancer, birth
defects and species extinctions; along with global climate change,
stratospheric ozone depletion; and worldwide contamination with toxic
substances and nuclear materials.
We believe existing environmental regulations and other decisions,
particularly those based on risk assessment, have failed to adequately
protect human health and the environment, as well as the larger system
of which humans are but a part.
We believe there is compelling evidence that damage to humans and the
worldwide environment, is of such magnitude and seriousness that new
principles for conducting human activities are necessary.
While we realize that human activities may involve hazards, people must
proceed more carefully than has been the case in recent history.
Corporations, government entities, organizations, communities,
scientists and other individuals must adopt a precautionary approach to
all human endeavors.
Therefore it is necessary to implement the Precautionary Principle:
Where an activity raises threats of harm to the environment or human
health, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and
effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.
In this context the proponent of an activity, rather than the public bears
the burden of proof.
The process of applying the Precautionary Principle must be open,
informed and democratic, and must include potentially affected parties.
It must also involve an examination of the full range of alternatives,
including no action.
Wingspread conference participants:
(Affiliations noted for identification purposes only.)
- Dr. Nicholas Ashford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Katherine Barrett, Univ. of British Columbia
- Anita Bernstein, Chicago-Kent College of Law
- Dr. Robert Costanza, University of Maryland
- Pat Costner, Greenpeace
- Dr. Carl Cranor, Univ. of California, Riverside
- Dr. Peter deFur, Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Gordon Durnil, attorney
- Dr. Kenneth Geiser, Toxics Use Reduction Institute, Univ. of Mass., Lowell
- Dr. Andrew Jordan, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, Univ. Of East Anglia, United Kingdom
- Andrew King, United Steelworkers of America, Canadian Office, Toronto, Canada
- Dr. Frederick Kirschenmann, farmer
- Stephen Lester, Center for Health, Environment and Justice
- Sue Maret, Union Institute
- Dr. Michael M'Gonigle, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
- Dr. Peter Montague, Environmental Research Foundation
- Dr. John Peterson Myers, W. Alton Jones Foundation
- Dr. Mary O'Brien, environmental consultant
- Dr. David Ozonoff, Boston University
- Carolyn Raffensperger, Science and Environmental Health Network
- Dr. Philip Regal, University of Minnesota
- Hon. Pamela Resor, Massachusetts House of Representatives
- Florence Robinson, Louisiana Environmental Network
- Dr. Ted Schettler, Physicians for Social Responsibility
- Ted Smith, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition
- Dr. Klaus-Richard Sperling, Alfred-Wegener- Institut, Hamburg, Germany
- Dr. Sandra Steingraber, author
- Diane Takvorian, Environmental Health Coalition
- Joel Tickner,University of Mass., Lowell
- Dr. Konrad von Moltke, Dartmouth College
- Dr. Bo Wahlstrom, KEMI (National Chemical Inspectorate), Sweden
- Jackie Warledo, Indigenous Environmental Network