AGENDA 21, CHAPTER 9


               PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE


NOTE:     This is a final, advanced version of a chapter of
          Agenda 21, as adopted by the Plenary in Rio de
          Janeiro, on June 14, 1992.  This document will be
          further edited, translated into the official
          languages, and published by the United Nations
          for the General Assembly this autumn.


                      INTRODUCTION


9.1.  Protection of the atmosphere is a broad and
multidimensional endeavor involving various sectors of
economic activity.  The options and measures described in
this chapter are recommended for consideration and, as
appropriate, implementation by governments and other bodies
in their efforts to protect the atmosphere.

9.2.  It is recognized that many of the issues discussed in
this chapter are also addressed in such international
agreements as the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection
of the Ozone Layer, the 1987 Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as amended, the
1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change, and other
international, including regional, instruments.  In the
case of activities covered by such agreements, it is
understood that the recommendations contained in this
chapter do not oblige any government to take measures which
exceed the provisions of these legal instruments.  However,
within the framework of this chapter, governments are free
to carry out additional measures which are consistent with
those legal instruments.

9.3.  It is also recognized that activities that may be
undertaken in pursuit of the objectives of this chapter
should be coordinated with social and economic development
in an integrated manner with a view to avoiding adverse
impacts on the latter, taking into full account the
legitimate priority needs of developing countries for the
achievement of sustained economic growth and the
eradication of poverty.

9.4.  In this context particular reference is also made to
Programme Area A of Chapter 2 of Agenda 21.

9.5.  The present chapter includes the following four
programme areas:

      a.    Addressing the uncertainties: improving the
            scientific basis for decision-making;

      b.    Promoting sustainable development:

            i.      Energy development, efficiency and
                    consumption;
            ii.     Transportation;
            iii.    Industrial development;
            iv.     Terrestrial and marine resource
                    development and land use;

      c.    Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion;

      d.    Transboundary atmospheric pollution.

                      PROGRAMME AREAS

      A.    Addressing the uncertainties:  improving the
            scientific basis for decision-making

Basis for action

9.6.  Concern about climate change and climate variability,
air pollution and ozone depletion has created new demands
for scientific, economic and social information to reduce
the remaining uncertainties in these fields.  Better
understanding and prediction of the various properties of
the atmosphere and of the affected ecosystems, as well as
health impacts and their interactions with socio-economic
factors, are needed.

Objectives

9.7.  The basic objective of this programme area is to
improve the understanding of processes that influence and
are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere on a global,
regional and local scale, including, inter alia, physical,
chemical, geological, biological, oceanic, hydrological,
economic and social processes; to build capacity and to
enhance international cooperation; and to improve
understanding of the economic and social consequences of
atmospheric changes and of mitigation and response measures
addressing such changes.

Activities

9.8.  Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector, should:

      a.    Promote research related to the natural
processes affecting and being affected by the atmosphere,
as well as the critical linkages between sustainable
development and atmospheric changes, including impacts on
human health, ecosystems, economic sectors, and society.

      b.    Ensure a more balanced geographical coverage of
the Global Climate Observing System and its components,
including the Global Atmosphere Watch, by facilitating,
inter alia, the establishment and operation of additional
systematic observation stations, and by contributing to the
development, utilization and accessibility of these
databases;

      c.    Promote cooperation in

            i. the development of early detection systems
               concerning changes and fluctuations in the
               atmosphere, and

          ii.  the establishment and improvement of
               capabilities to predict such changes and
               fluctuations and to assess the resulting
               environmental and socio-economic impacts;

      d.    Cooperate in research to develop methodologies
and identify threshold levels of atmospheric pollutants, as
well as atmospheric levels of greenhouse gas
concentrations, that would cause dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system and the environment as
a whole, and the associated rates of change that would not
allow ecosystems to adapt naturally.

      e.    Promote, and cooperate in the building of
scientific capacities, the exchange of scientific data and
information, and the facilitation of the participation and
training of experts and technical staff, particularly of
developing countries, in the fields of research, data
assembly, collection and assessment, and systematic
observation related to the atmosphere.


           B.  Promoting sustainable development

    1.  Energy development, efficiency and consumption

Basis for action

9.9.  Energy is essential to economic and social
development and improved quality of life.  Much of the
world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed
in ways that could not be sustained if technology were to
remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase
substantially.  The need to control atmospheric emissions
of greenhouse and other gases and substances will
increasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy
production, transmission, distribution and consumption, and
on growing reliance on environmentally sound energy
systems, particularly new and renewable sources of
energy./1/  All energy sources will need to be used in ways
that respect the atmosphere, human health, and the
environment as a whole.

9.10. The existing constraints to increasing the
environmentally sound energy supplies required for pursuing
the path towards sustainable development, particularly in
developing countries, need to be removed.

Objectives
9.11. The basic and ultimate objective of this programme
area is to reduce adverse effects on the atmosphere from
the energy sector by promoting policies or programmes, as
appropriate, to increase the contribution of
environmentally safe and sound and cost effective energy
systems, particularly new and renewable ones, through less
polluting and more efficient energy production,
transmission, distribution and use.  This objective should
reflect the need for equity, adequate energy supplies and
increasing energy consumption in developing countries, and
the need to take into consideration the situations of
countries that are highly dependent on income generated
from the production, processing and export, and/or
consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive
products and/or the use of fossil fuels for which countries
have serious difficulties in switching to alternatives, and
of countries highly vulnerable to adverse effects of
climate change.

Activities


9.12. Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector, should:

      a.    Cooperate in identifying and developing
economically viable, and environmentally sound energy
sources to promote the availability of increased energy
supplies to support sustainable development efforts, in
particular in developing countries;

      b.    Promote the development at the national level
of appropriate methodologies for making integrated energy,
environment and economic policy decisions for sustainable
development, inter alia through environmental impact
assessments;

      c.    Promote the research, development, transfer and
use of improved energy-efficient technologies and
practices, including endogenous technologies in all
relevant sectors, giving special attention to the
rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, with
particular attention to developing countries;

      d.    Promote the research, development, transfer and
use of technologies and practices for environmentally sound
energy systems, including new and renewable energy systems,
with particular attention to developing countries;

      e.    Promote the development of institutional,
scientific, planning and management capacities,
particularly in developing countries, to develop, produce,
and use increasingly efficient and less polluting forms of
energy;

      f.    Review current energy supply mixes to determine
how the contribution of environmentally sound energy
systems as a whole, particularly new and renewable energy
systems, could be increased in an economically efficient
manner, taking into account respective countries' unique
social, physical, economic and political characteristics,
and examining and implementing, where appropriate, measures
to overcome any barriers to their development and use;

      g.    Coordinate energy plans regionally and
subregionally, where applicable, and study the feasibility
of efficient distribution of environmentally sound energy
from new and renewable energy sources;

      h.    In accordance with national socio-economic
development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as
appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes,
including administrative, social and economic measures, in
order to improve energy efficiency;

      i.    Build capacity for energy planning and programme
management in energy efficiency, as well as for the
development, introduction, and promotion of new and
renewable sources of energy;

      j.    Promote appropriate energy efficiency and
emission standards or recommendations at the national
level/2/, aimed at the development and use of technologies
that minimize adverse impacts on the environment.

      k.    Encourage education and awareness-raising
programmes at the local, national, subregional and regional
levels concerning energy efficiency and environmentally
sound energy systems;

      l.    Establish or enhance, as appropriate, in
cooperation with the private sector, labelling programmes
for products to provide decision makers and consumers with
information on opportunities for energy efficiency.


                    2.  Transportation

Basis for action

9.13. The transport sector has an essential and positive
role to play in economic and social development, and
transportation needs will undoubtedly increase.  However,
since the transport sector is also a source of atmospheric
emissions, there is need for a review of existing transport
systems, and the more effective design and management of
traffic and transport systems.

Objectives

9.14. The basic objective of this programme area is to
develop and promote cost-effective policies or programmes,
as appropriate, to limit, reduce or control, as
appropriate, harmful emissions into the atmosphere and
other adverse environmental effects of the transport
sector, taking into account development priorities as well
as the specific local and national circumstances and safety
aspects.

Activities


9.15. Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector, should:

      a.    Develop and promote, as appropriate, cost
effective, more efficient, less polluting and safer
transport systems, particularly integrated rural and urban
mass transit, as well as environmentally sound road
networks, taking into account the needs for sustainable
social, economic and development priorities, particularly
in developing countries;

      b.    Facilitate at the international, regional
subregional and national levels the access to and the
transfer of safe, efficient, including resource-efficient,
and less polluting transport technologies, particularly to
the developing countries, including the implementation of
appropriate training programmes;

      c.    Strengthen, as appropriate, their efforts at
collecting, analysing and exchanging relevant information
on the relation between environment and transport, with
particular emphasis on the systematic observation of
emissions and the development of a transport database;

      d.    In accordance with national socio-economic
development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as
appropriate, promote cost effective policies or programmes,
including administrative, social and economic measures, in
order to encourage use of transportation modes that
minimize adverse impacts on the atmosphere;

      e.    Develop or enhance, as appropriate, mechanisms
to integrate transport planning strategies and urban and
regional settlement planning strategies, with a view to
reducing the environmental impacts of transport;

      f.    Study, within the framework of the United
Nations and its regional economic commissions, the
feasibility of convening regional conferences on transport
and the environment.

                3.  Industrial development

Basis for action

9.16. Industry is essential for the production of goods and
services and is a major source of employment and income,
and industrial development as such is essential for
economic growth.  At the same time, industry is a major
resource and materials user and consequently industrial
activities result in emissions into the atmosphere and the
environment as a whole.    Protection of the atmosphere can
be enhanced, inter alia, by increasing resource and
materials efficiency in industry, installing or improving
pollution abatement technologies and replacing
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting
substances with appropriate substitutes, as well as by
reducing wastes and by-products.

Objectives

9.17. The basic objective of this programme area is to
encourage industrial development in ways that minimize
adverse impacts on the atmosphere by, inter alia,
increasing efficiency in the production and consumption by
industry of all resources and materials, by improving
pollution-abatement technologies, and by developing new
environmentally  sound technologies.

Activities

9.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector, should:

      a.    In accordance with national socio-economic
development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as
appropriate, promote cost effective policies or programmes,
including administrative, social and economic measures, in
order to minimize industrial pollution and adverse impacts
on the atmosphere;

      b.    Encourage industry to increase and strengthen
its capacity to develop technologies, products and
processes which are safe, less polluting, and make more
efficient use of all resources and materials, including
energy;

      c.    Cooperate in development and transfer of such
industrial technologies and in development of capacities to
manage and use such technologies, particularly with respect
to developing countries;

      d.    Develop, improve and apply environmental impact
assessments to foster sustainable industrial development;

      e.    Promote efficient use of materials and
resources, taking into account the life cycles of products,
in order to realize the economic and environmental benefits
of using resources more efficiently and producing less
wastes;

      f.    Support the promotion of less polluting and more
efficient technologies and processes in industries, taking
into account area-specific accessible potentials for
energy, particularly safe and renewable sources of energy,
with a view to limiting industrial pollution and adverse
impacts on the atmosphere.


4.  Terrestrial and marine resource development
                     and land use

Basis for action

9.19. Land-use and resource policies will both affect and
be affected by changes in the atmosphere.  Certain
practices related to terrestrial and marine resources and
land use can decrease greenhouse gas sinks and increase
atmospheric emissions.  The loss of biological diversity
may reduce the resilience of ecosystems to climatic
variations and air pollution damage.  Atmospheric changes
can have important impacts on forests, biodiversity, and
freshwater and marine ecosystems, as well as on economic
activities, such as agriculture.  Policy objectives in
different sectors may often diverge and will need to be
handled in an integrated manner.

Objectives

9.20. The objectives of this programme area are:

      (a)   To promote terrestrial and marine resource
utilization and appropriate land-use practices that
contribute to:

            i. Reducing atmospheric pollution and/ or
               limiting anthropogenic emissions of
               greenhouse gases;

         ii.   The conservation, sustainable management and
               enhancement, where appropriate, of all sinks
               for greenhouse gases;

      iii.     The conservation and sustainable use of
               natural and environmental resources;

      (b)   To ensure that actual and potential atmospheric
changes and their socio-economic and ecological impacts are
fully taken into account in planning and implementing
policies and programmes concerning terrestrial and marine
resources utilization and land-use practices.

Activities

9.21. Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector, should:

      a.    In accordance with national socio-economic
development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as
appropriate, promote cost effective policies or programmes,
including administrative, social and economic measures, in
order to encourage environmentally sound land-use
practices.

      b.    Implement policies and programmes that will
discourage inappropriate and polluting land-use practices
and promote sustainable utilization of terrestrial and
marine resources;

      c.    Consider promoting the development and use of
terrestrial and marine resources and land-use practices
that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and
fluctuations;

      d.    Promote sustainable management and cooperation
in the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of
sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases, including
biomass, forests and oceans, as well as other terrestrial,
coastal and marine ecosystems.


       C.  Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion

Basis for action

9.22. Analysis of recent scientific data has confirmed the
growing concern about the continuing depletion of the
Earth's stratospheric ozone layer by reactive chlorine and
bromine from man-made CFCs, halons and related substances.
While the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances
that Deplete the Ozone Layer (as amended in London in 1990)
were important steps in international action, the total
chlorine loading of the atmosphere of ozone-depleting
substances has continued to rise.  This can be changed
through compliance with the control measures identified
within the Protocol.

Objectives

9.23. The objectives of this programme area are:

      a.    To realize the objectives defined in the Vienna
Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its 1990
amendments, including the consideration in those
instruments of the special needs and conditions of the
developing countries and the availability to them of
alternatives to substances that deplete the ozone layer.
Technologies and natural products that reduce demand for
these substances should be encouraged;

      b.    To develop strategies aimed at mitigating the
adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation reaching the
Earth's surface as a consequence of depletion and
modification of the stratospheric ozone layer.

Activities

9.24. Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector, should:

      a.    Ratify, accept or approve the Montreal Protocol
and its 1990 amendments; pay their contributions towards
the Vienna/Montreal trust funds and the interim
multilateral ozone fund promptly; and contribute, as
appropriate, towards ongoing efforts under the Montreal
Protocol and its implementing mechanisms, including making
available substitutes for CFCs and other ozone-depleting
substances and facilitating the transfer of the
corresponding technologies to developing countries in order
to enable them to comply with the obligations of the
Protocol;

      b.    Support further expansion of the Global Ozone
Observing System by facilitating - through bilateral and
multilateral funding - the establishment and operation of
additional systematic observation stations, especially in
the tropical belt in the southern hemisphere.

      c.    Participate actively in the continuous
assessment of scientific information and the health and
environmental effects, as well as of the
technological/economic implications of stratospheric ozone
depletion; and consider further actions that prove
warranted and feasible on the basis of these assessments;

      d.    Based on the results of research on the effects
of the additional ultraviolet radiation reaching the
Earth's surface, consider taking appropriate remedial
measures in the fields of human health, agriculture and
marine environment;

      e.    Replace CFCs and other ozone-depleting
substances, consistent with the Montreal Protocol,
recognizing that a replacement's suitability should be
evaluated holistically and not simply based on its
contribution to solving one atmospheric or environmental
problem.


          D.  Transboundary atmospheric pollution

Basis for action

9.25. Transboundary air pollution has adverse health
impacts on humans and other detrimental environmental
impacts, such as tree and forest loss and the acidification
of water bodies.  The geographical distribution of
atmospheric pollution monitoring networks is uneven, with
the developing countries severely underrepresented.  The
lack of reliable emissions data outside Europe and North
America is a major constraint to measuring transboundary
air pollution.  There is also insufficient information on
the environmental and health effects of air pollution in
other regions.

9.26. The 1979 Economic Commission for Europe Convention on
Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, and its protocols,
have established a regional regime in Europe and North
America, based on a review process and cooperative
programmes for systematic observation of air pollution,
assessment and information exchange.  These programmes need
to be continued and enhanced, and their experience needs to
be shared with other regions of the world.

Objectives

9.27. The objectives of this programme area are:

      a.    To develop and apply pollution control and
measurement technologies for stationary and mobile sources
of air pollution and to develop alternative environmentally
sound technologies;

      b.    To observe and assess systematically the sources
and extent of transboundary air pollution resulting from
natural processes and anthropogenic activities;

      c.    To strengthen the capabilities, particularly of
developing countries, to measure, model and assess the fate
and impacts of transboundary air pollution, through, inter
alia, exchange of information and training of experts;

      d.    To develop capabilities to assess and mitigate
transboundary air pollution resulting from industrial and
nuclear accidents, natural disasters and the deliberate
and/or accidental destruction of natural resources;

      e.    To encourage the establishment of new and the
implementation of existing regional agreements for limiting
transboundary air pollution;

      f.    To develop strategies aiming at the reduction
of emissions causing transboundary air pollution and their
effects.

Activities

9.28. Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as
appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, the private sector and financial
institutions, should:

      a.    Establish and/or strengthen regional agreements
for transboundary air pollution control and cooperate,
particularly with developing countries, in the areas of
systematic observations and assessment, modelling and the
development and exchange of emission control technologies
of mobile and stationary sources of air pollution.  In this
context, greater emphasis should be put on addressing the
extent, causes, health and socio-economic impacts of
ultraviolet radiation, acidification of the environment and
photo-oxidant damage to forests and other vegetation;

      b.    Establish or strengthen early warning systems
and response mechanisms for transboundary air pollution
resulting from industrial accidents and natural disasters
and the deliberate and/or accidental destruction of natural
resources;

      c.    Facilitate training opportunities and exchange
of data, information and national and/or regional
experiences;

      d.    Cooperate on regional, multilateral and
bilateral bases to assess transboundary air pollution, and
elaborate and implement programmes identifying specific
actions to reduce atmospheric emissions and to address
their environmental, economic, social and other effects.

Means of implementation

International and Regional Co-operation

9.29. Existing legal instruments have created institutional
structures which relate to the purposes of these
instruments, and relevant work should primarily continue in
those contexts.  Governments should continue to cooperate
and enhance their cooperation at the regional and global
levels, including within the United Nations system.  In
this context reference is made to the recommendations of
chapter 38 of Agenda 21.

Capacity-building

9.30. Countries, in cooperation with the relevant United
Nations bodies, international donors and non-governmental
organizations, should mobilize technical and financial
resources and facilitate technical cooperation with
developing countries to reinforce their technical,
managerial, planning and administrative capacities to
promote sustainable development and the protection of the
atmosphere, in all relevant sectors.

Human resource development

9.31. Education and awareness-raising programmes need to be
introduced and strengthened at the local, national and
international levels concerning the promotion of
sustainable development and the protection of the
atmosphere, in all relevant sectors.

Financial and cost evaluation

9.32. The UNCED Secretariat has estimated the average total
annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities
under Programme Area A to be about $640 million from the
international community on grant or concessional terms.
These are indicative and order of magnitude estimates only
and have not been reviewed by governments.  Actual costs
and financial terms, including any that are non-
concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific
strategies and programmes governments decide upon for
implementation.

9.33. The UNCED Secretariat has estimated the average total
annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of
the four-part programme under Programme Area B to be about
$20 billion from the international community on grant or
concessional terms.  These are indicative and order of
magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by
governments.  Actual costs and financial terms, including
any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter
alia, the specific strategies and programmes governments
decide upon for implementation.

9.34. The UNCED Secretariat has estimated the average total
annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities
under Programme Area C to be in the range of $160-590
million on grant or concessional terms.  These are
indicative and order of magnitude estimates only and have
not been reviewed by governments. Actual costs and
financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,
will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes governments decide upon for implementation.

9.35. The UNCED Secretariat has included costing for
technical assistance and pilot programmes under 9.32 and
9.33 above.

                           Notes

      1/    New and renewable energy sources are solar
thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, hydro, biomass,
geothermal, ocean, animal and human power, as referred to
in the reports of the Committee on the Development and
Utilization of New and Renewable Sources of Energy,
prepared specifically for the Conference (see
A/CONF.151/PC/119 and A/AC.218/1992/5).

      2/    This includes standards or recommendations
promoted by regional economic integration organizations.


                          * * * *


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Note 420      A21/10 Land Resources
unced                               6:47 am  Jul 10, 1992

From: UNCED 
Subject: A21/10 Land Resources

A-21: LAND RESOURCES





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