Urban Environmental Management
Cities, EMS and Everything
Putting up a Green Front
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7+1 Models of Urban EMSs

More and more cities are taking the initiative of developing and implementing an EMS - either within the framework of ISO 14001, or outside it. We can see seven models of urban EMSs plus the real model!

Model 1

Model 1: Single Action
The local government takes only one action, or a couple of actions, such as electricity/water saving or paper recycling ・using the 迭educe, Reuse, Recycle・approach.

Examples
Very Common. Many cities in Australia, Europe and USA have implemented such actions

Model 2

Model 2: ISO 14001 Certification
The local government obtains ISO 14001 certification, but usually for the city office buildings only, involving some or all departments of the local government.

Examples
More than 200 local governments in Japan have obtained ISO 14001 Certification

Model 3

Model 3: Utilities Certification
Each utility office (for example, utility agencies related to the supply of water, electricity, gas, transportation etc.) obtains ISO 14001 certification separately, and usually there is no link to local government or between utilities.

Examples
York, Canada and Honolulu, USA

Model 4

Model 4: Green Procurement and EMA
Local governments being the largest 'consumer' in a city - insist that developers and builders who work with them on urban infrastructure projects, or suppliers of materials have obtained ISO 14001 certification in order to qualify to participate in tendering. Local governments have also used environmental management accounting to verify and evaluate the environmental impact of their activities and projects.

Examples
Scotsdale, USA; Frankfurt, Germany; Heidelburg, Germany

Model 5

Model 5: Work with Civil Society
Local governments work with groups such as residents, children, youth, women etc. to implement 組reen action・through an EMS. An EMS applied at the level of a household, or involvement of children in a 'Kids EMS' are common.

Examples
Minamata, Sendai and Tokyo in Japan

Model 6

Model 6: Link and Implement Environmental Initiatives
EMS is frequently linked to, and used as an implementation strategy, for other environmental initiatives such as Local Agenda 21.

Examples
Hailton-Wentworth, Canada and Huddersfield, UK

Model 7

Model 7: Self-declare an EMS
Many local governments and other public entities are taking the step to 'self-declare' the EMS that they have implemented, without going through the ISO certification process.

Examples
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Model X

Model X: The full EMS
Considering the complexity of urban environments and their management processes, a 喪eal・EMS is in fact, a combination of all the seven models, plus other actions and procedures that are a necessary part of ISO 14001.

Examples
Manningham, Australia, Seattle, USA, and Penang and Kuching,Malaysia


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Contact: Hari Srinivas - hsrinivas@gdrc.org