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 Urban Environmental Issues:

Summary of Urban Environmental Issues and Options

[ Air ][ Water ][ Land ][ Cross-media ]
Problem area
Management options
  • household
  • costs related to blocked drainage and flooding
  • water pollution from leachates
  • air pollution from burning
  • amenity losses
  • poor management (improper collection and disposal, little resource recovery)
  • pricing (no cost recovery)
  • disposal impacts external to the community
  • input pricing
  • private sector delivery of collection and disposal
  • waste minimization (recycling, recovery, source reduction)
  • regulations, standards, licensing, charges
  • expanded coverage
  • institutional strengthening
  • surface, ground, coastal water contamination
  • related health, economic and resource impacts
  • accumulation of toxics in the food chain
  • reduced property values
  • inadequate regulations and/or enforcement
  • no incentives for treatment
  • input pricing for waste-producing industries
  • low visibility, nonlinear, long term effects
  • dispersed small-scale and cottage industries
  • regulations, standards, licensing and standards
  • improve monitoring and enforcement
  • treatment and disposal incentives
  • economic input pricing
  • waste minimization
  • marginal cost pricing
  • special incentives for small scale generators
  • privatization of treatment and disposal operations
  • health effects (death, injuries)
  • economic costs (loss of lives, property, infrastructure)
  • land degradation (flooding, landslides, earthquakes)
  • amenity losses
  • natural forces
  • land market failures (lack of alternatives for squatters, artificially constrained supply)
  • land policies (no taxation, no/unenforced protection of high risk lands)
  • poor construction practices
  • reduce constraints on supply of usable land
  • appropriate incentives (prices, taxes, tenure, housing finance)
  • land use controls
  • improve knowledge about risks and alternatives
  • health impacts (diarrhoeal diseases, parasites, high infant mortality, malnutrition)
  • related economic costs
  • eutrophication
  • amenity losses
  • inappropriate technology
  • pricing (no cost recovery)
  • poor management (lack of operations and maintenance, uncoordinated investments)
  • inadequate hygiene education
  • gear sanitation options to willingness to pay
  • community approaches
  • cost recovery (pay for O&M, new investments)
  • hygiene education
  • health effects
  • property damage
  • accidents
  • reduced urban productivity (shutdown of business, transport systems)
  • inadequate hygiene education
  • increased urban runoff due to impermeabilization and upstream deforestation
  • occupation of low-lying lands
  • community management of maintenance
  • strategic investment in drainage
  • land use controls and market liberalization
  • solid waste management
[ Air ][ Water ][ Land ][ Cross-media ]

Source: Abstracted from Leitman, Josef, Rapid Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Cities in the developing World. Volume 1. Methodology and preliminary Findings. Urban Management Programme, UNCHS, UNDP and the World Bank
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