Human Security: Seven Categories

There are essentially seven issues associated human security. These are economic security, food security, health security environmental security, personal security, community security, and political security.

Some of the criteria associated with economic security include insured basic income and employment, and access to such social safety net. Food security is simply access to basic nutrition and food supply. Health security is more complex, and covers many different issues such as access to safe water, living in a safe environment, access to health services, access to safe and affordable family planning and basic support during pregnancy and delivery, prevention of HIV/AIDS and other diseases, and to have basic knowledge to live a healthy life.

Environmental security is straightforward and cover such issues as prevention of water pollution, prevention of air pollution, prevention from deforestation, irrigated land conservation, prevention of natural hazards such as droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes etc.

Community security on the other hand covers conservation of traditional and cultures, languages and commonly held values. It also includes abolishment of ethnic discrimination, prevention of ethnic conflicts, and protection of indigenous people.

Finally political security is concerned with protection of human rights and well-being of all people. It also includes protection against people from state repression such as freedom of press, freedom of speech, and freedom of voting. Abolishment of political detention, imprisonment, systematic ill treatment, and disappearance are also covered under political security.

Among the seven elements to human security are considerable links and overlaps. But that one element of human security is likely to travel like an angry typhoon to all forms of human security.

Source: Human Development Report 1994, "New Dimensions of Human Security".

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