Technology transfer is the process by which basic science research and fundamental discoveries are developed into practical and commercially relevant applications and products. Technology Transfer personnel evaluate and manage invention portfolios, oversee patent prosecution, negotiate licensing agreements and periodically review cooperative research agreements already in place. Part of the technology transfer process involves the prosecution of patents which is overseen by the national Patent and Trademark Office. Individuals with advanced degrees in the biomedical sciences are needed to review and process patents in the biotechnology field.Technology Transfer is the intersection between business, science, engineering, law and government ...
Summarized from - http://www.research.cornell.edu/cotaba.html
An Emerging Technology is an innovative technology that currently is undergoing bench-scale testing, in which a small version of the technology is tested in a laboratory.
An Innovative Technology is a technology that has been field-tested and applied to a hazardous waste problem at a site, but lacks a long history of full-scale use. Information about its cost and how well it works may be insufficient to support prediction of its performance under a wide variety of operating conditions.
An Established Technology is a technology for which cost and performance information is readily available. Only after a technology has been used at many different sites and the results fully documented is that technology considered established.
Source - http://www.clu-in.com/Files/back.htm
The objectives of creativity & innovation :
Summarized from - http://www.fplc.edu/CIC/
Technology Transfer Activities include:
processing and evaluating invention disclosures; filing for patents; technology marketing; licensing; protecting intellectual property arising from research activity; and assisting in creating new businesses and promoting the success of existing firms. The result of these activities will be new products, more high-quality jobs, and an expanded economy.
Summarized from - http://spot.colorado.edu/~techtran/Home.html
ASSESSING COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL
Commercialization is one effective method of transferring technologies. Establishing a technology's prospects for commercial success depends largely on five factors:
Source - http://cary.u.washington.edu/ott/OTT_intro.html
Using New Technologies: A Technology Transfer Guidebook
Section 1, Motivating Technology Transfer, justifies the use of a technology transfer process and gives you a roadmap to the guidebook's contents.
Source - http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/languages/ada/docs/techxfer/
Technology Transfer Initiative with Minority and Small Businesses and Manufacturers
The initiative's several goals include establishing a marketing strategy to provide minority businesses with technology transfer opportunities, assisting with establishing a minority technology transfer consortium, developing and seeking funding for minority industrial fellowships, strengthening minority employee recruitment through the consortium; linking the Science Education and External Relations program with the Technology Transfer Initiative, providing minority businesses and various divisions with technical assistance as it relates to technology transfer, and establishing a tracking system to provide follow-up on all activities.
Source - http://infosrv1.ctd.ornl.gov/patent/sba.html
"The process by which existing knowledge, facilities or capabilities developed under federal R&D funding are utilized to fulfill public and private needs."
Although this process can be very simple or quite complex, it basically involves a technical resource (e.g., federal laboratory), a user (e.g., small business), and some interface connecting the two.
"Technology transfer" includes a range of formal and informal cooperations between technology developers and technology seekers. In addition, technology transfer involves the transfer of knowledge and technical-knowhow as well as physical devices and equipment.
Some of the mechanisms that make technology transfer possible include: joint research, cooperative agreements, licensing, technical meetings, trade shows, and information dissemination.
Source: Unknown ...
Constitueients of Technology Transfer Processes
TIPS Method (Technology Implementation Potential for Success)
Sample Technology Transfer TIPS
Source - http://bud.tic.ab.ca/venquest/vqt_home.htm
Users/beneficiaries of Technology Transfer:
Source: Unknown ...
Technology Transfer: An African Perspective
Does the sale of a technology constitute technology transfer? The introduction of a technology into a developing country, is understood by some developed countries as having achieved the objective of technology transfer.
Technology transfer is not about selling some hardware to a client who is then left with the task of using it as he/she deems fit. Technology transfer is the imparting of knowledge, skills and methodologies involved in the whole production cycle. Technology transfer is a system that encompasses the social and economic fabric of a country. Where technology has been effectively transferred, there should be a visible change - from the person to the production system as well as compatibility with the needs, in the institutional framework, skills, training, financial capacity, promotion, and active support of endogenous capacity and appreciation of the natural environment of the recipient country. Technology transfer also has to do with disseminating information on the technologies themselves.
The 1992 Earth Summit provided impetus for work on alternative sources of energy to halt the process of global warming. The development of technology is being seen as a panacea to this problem.
But recently, in an effort to capture the market for renewable energy technologies, the catchword is `penetration' and `speed'. However, the question is whether this modus operandi will be conducive to effective technology transfer. Clearly not. It takes time to break through fixations about familiar or entrenched ideas and technologies, just as the imparting of knowledge to local people. Where local participation in efforts to bring about new technology is lacking, it is unlikely that the efforts will bring about the desired effect.
Obviously, there are problems that act as barriers to appropriate technology transfer such as local capacity as well as the multinationals whose financial powers have in many cases weakened the strengths of governments. But a much bigger problem in effective and appropriate technology transfer is focused on the priorities of the donor or purveyor. The financial limitations of most countries in Africa means that they cannot choose the technologies best suited to them and, as a result, flexibility is compromised and development stillborn.
Source - Mbeki Maboyi, Zimbabwe Energy Research Organization
There is a strong need for linkages to be developed and maintained between industry and research organizations. This requires the effective identification and specification of research needs, and knowledge of relevant research that is being conducted. For this to happen, industry needs to be involved at an early stage of research, so as to be able to participate even in the research definition stage. At the same time, public sector research organizations need to be prepared to support industry in the commercialization process. Efforts to erase preconceptions that build barriers to successful technology transfer should also be taken.
Sources - Workshop meeting of Japan - India Technology Network.
Some issues/themes in Technology Transfer:
Source - http://www.nttc.edu/nttcnews/fltm.html
Many definitions of technology transfer have been developed to suit the needs of the individual organizations or activities.:
Although this process can be very simple or quite complex, it basically involves a technical resource (e.g., laboratory), a user (e.g., small business), and some interface connecting the two. Technology transfer remains part "science" and part "art," requiring to select an operating mode which works, the laboratory, and the clientele. "Technology transfer" includes a range of formal and informal cooperations between laboratories and the public and private sectors. The purpose of the transfer is to strengthen the economy by accelerating the application of laboratory technology and resources to private and public needs and opportunities. Product improvement, service efficiencies, improved manufacturing processes, joint development to address government and private sector needs, and the development of major new products for the international marketplace are the results of successful technology transfer efforts.The process by which existing knowledge, facilities or capabilities are utilized to fulfill public and private needs.
Government-Industry-non-profits-People-Equipment-Facilities Implementing TT includes the ingredients of licensing agreements, promotional publications, training courses, information exchange, participation in conferences and exhibitions, technical assistance
Source - Unknown ...
The Technology Network - TechNet - consists of a series of World Bank Group initiatives in the area of science and technology (S&T) for development. These initiatives attempt to: (i) improve our understanding of the impact of new technologies on developing countries and the factors that enhance or restrict their ability to take advantage of them; (ii) raise awareness of member governments, Bank staff and management, and other potential donors/contributors to the opportunities and challenges for developing countries created by rapid technological progress; (iii) integrate technological concerns into the development strategies of member country governments and the Bank's country assistance strategies with a view to promote the adoption of new technologies by the private sector; and (iv) accelerate the transfer of new technologies to developing countries and their adaptation to local conditions, while promoting local capacity for technological development.
To achieve these objectives, TechNet:
Source - http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/technet/technet.htm
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