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Checklist of strategy options
for incorporating gender in water and sanitation

The following table broadly summarizes options for addressing gender in designing and implementing water and sanitation sector interventions.

Levels/Objectives/Options Key Stakeholders *
Level: Country Policy
Objective: Develop and implement more efficient, cost-effective, and demand-responsive water and sanitation policies by incorporating gender issues.
  • Introduce gender issues in sector reviews, policy workshops, and other activities that are part of policy development.
  • Put gender issues on the agenda of annual sector meetings and policy implementation reviews.
  • Include gender expertise on policy development and implementation teams.
Government ministries, donor agencies, women's and other NGOs, and sometimes user groups
Level: National Water and Sanitation Programs
Objective: Improve country-level program design and implementation by incorporating gender concerns.
  • Include gender issues in country program framework.
  • Include gender-related guidelines and principles in country program.
  • Employ gender analysis in designing projects.
  • Include government staff with gender expertise in monitoring the national program.
  • Monitor gender issues regularly.
Government ministries, donor agencies, women's and other NGOs, and user groups
Level: Water and Sanitation Projects
Objective: Design and implement projects that are driven by the demands of both men and women.

Project Design:
  • Structure project rules and procedures to facilitate participation by both men and women.
  • Determine gender roles in the sector in the proposed project area.
  • Determine barriers to gender-appropriate project implementation.
  • Determine steps to reducing or removing the barriers.
  • Make projects flexible so they may adapt appropriately as more is learned about gender issues.
  • Include a gender expert on the team during project design/preparation.

Implementation and Supervision:

  • Amend project rules and procedures as needed to facilitate participation by both men and women in implementation.
  • Ensure that project management is aware of the importance of gender issues through training, workshops, and study tours.
  • Include gender experts on project implementation staff.
  • Prevent “fade-out Eon attention to gender through specific tracking during supervision

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E):

  • Collect, tabulate, and analyze indicators by gender as appropriate.
  • Include specific indicators addressing gender issues in project M&E systems.
  • Examine gender-related M&E indicators during supervision.
Project staff, local government, and user groups
Level: Community
Objective: Increase project sustainability by improving implementation at community level.

Project Design:
  • Base men's and women's involvement on the local cultural context: for example, separate meetings of men and women or female staff meeting with community women, where necessary.
  • Use participatory techniques to ensure both women's and men's participation in project decision-making concerning:
    Technology choice
    Cost recovery
    O&M arrangements.
  • Obtain men's and women's preferences about
    Technology design
    Siting of facilities.

Operations and Maintenance:

  • Suggest that a certain percentage of water and sanitation committee members be women.
  • Suggest that women should hold at least one water and sanitation officer post, such as treasurer.
  • Provide training for both men and women in the roles they are to fill in the project.
  • Include additional training for women in leadership and organization, as appropriate.
  • Train both women and men in basic O&M techniques.
Project staff, community members, and women's and other NGOs
This column includes the broad categories of possible stakeholders at each stage of the program cycle. The stakeholders will vary by location and program and can be more accurately identified through a stakeholder analysis.

Source - Monica S. Fong, Wendy Wakeman and Anjana Bhushan, Toolkit on Gender in Water and Sanitation. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1996.
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